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Title:Introduction to Cancer Biology (Part 3): Tissue Invasion and Metastasis

Another common mechanism of cancer biology is the ability of malignant cells to migrate from their original site to organs throughout the body. This animation provides a closer look at how the EGFR pathway activates and modulates this process of metastasis. This animation is the third part of the series "An Introduction to Cancer Biology". REFERENCES: 1. Hanahan D, Weinberg RA. The hallmarks of cancer. Cell. 2000 Jan 7;100(1):57-70. 2. Herbst RS. Review of epidermal growth factor receptor biology. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2004;59(2 Suppl):21-6. 3. Gerharz CD, Ramp U, Reinecke P, et al. Analysis of growth factor-dependent signalling in human epithelioid sarcoma cell lines. Clues to the role of autocrine, juxtacrine and paracrine interactions in epithelioid sarcoma. Eur J Cancer. 2000 Jun;36(9):1171-9. 4. Potapova O, Fakhrai H, Mercola D. Growth factor PDGF-B/v-sis confers a tumorigenic phenotype to human tumor cells bearing PDGF receptors but not to cells devoid of receptors: evidence for an autocrine, but not a paracrine, mechanism. Int J Cancer. 1996 May 29;66(5):669-77. 5. Andl CD, Mizushima T, Nakagawa H, et al. Epidermal growth factor receptor mediates increased cell proliferation, migration, and aggregation in esophageal keratinocytes in vitro and in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jan 17;278(3):1824-30. 6. Di Fiore PP, Pierce JH, Kraus MH, Segatto O, King CR, Aaronson SA. erbB-2 is a potent oncogene when overexpressed in NIH/3T3 cells. Science. 1987 Jul 10;237(4811):178-82. 7. Batra SK, Castelino-Prabhu S, Wikstrand CJ, et al. Epidermal growth factor ligand-independent, unregulated, cell-transforming potential of a naturally occurring human mutant EGFRvIII gene. Cell Growth Differ. 1995 Oct;6(10):1251-9. 8. Egeblad M, Mortensen OH, Jaattela M. Truncated ErbB2 receptor enhances ErbB1 signaling and induces reversible, ERK-independent loss of epithelial morphology. Int J Cancer. 2001 Oct 15;94(2):185-91. 9. Lage A, Crombet T, González G. Targeting epidermal growth factor receptor signaling: early results and future trends in oncology. Ann Med. 2003; 35(5):327-36. 10. Adjei AA, Hidalgo M. Intracellular signal transduction pathway proteins as targets for cancer therapy. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Aug 10;23(23):5386-403. 11. Beeram M, Patnaik A, Rowinsky EK. Raf: a strategic target for therapeutic development against cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Sep 20;23(27):6771-90. 12. Schmelzle T, Hall MN. TOR, a central controller of cell growth. Cell. 2000 Oct 13;103(2):253-62. 13. Yarden Y, Sliwkowski MX. Untangling the ErbB signalling network. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2001 Feb;2(2):127-37. 14. Igney FH, Krammer PH. Death and anti-death: tumour resistance to apoptosis. Nat Rev Cancer. 2002 Apr; 2(4):277-88. 15. Delhalle S, Duvoix A, Schnekenburger M, Morceau F, Dicato M, Diederich M. An introduction to the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003 Dec;1010:1-8. 16. Veiby OP, Read MA. Chemoresistance: impact of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB inhibition by small interfering RNA. Clin Cancer Res. 2004 May 15;10(10):3333-41. 17. Foo P. Metastasis: The journey of mobile cancer cells. Harvard Science Review. Spring 2002;30-2. 18. Hicklin DJ, Ellis LM. Role of the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway in tumor growth and angiogenesis. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Feb 10;23(5):1011-27. 19. Ellis LM. Epidermal growth factor receptor in tumor angiogenesis. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2004 Oct; 18(5):1007-21. 20. Hurwitz H, Fehrenbacher L, Novotny W, et al. Bevacizumab plus Irinotecan, Fluorouracil, and Leucovorin for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2004 Jun 3;350(23):2335-42. 21. Motzer RJ, Michaelson MD, Redman BG, et al. Activity of SU11248, a multitargeted inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and platelet-derived growth factor receptor, in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Jan 1;24(1):16-24.


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